Babylon – Thành phố của nền văn minh Babylon

Thành phố Babylon cổ nằm ở miền Nam của vùng đồng bằng Lưỡng Hà, giáp với hữu ngạn Sông Euphrates (ở phía nam thủ đô Baghdad của Iraq). Hai triều đại Babylon cổTân Babylon đều định đô tại thành phố này. Nơi đây sớm trở thành trung tâm chính trị, kinh tế, văn hóa của cả khu vực đồng bằng châu thổ Lưỡng Hà. Tuy nhiên thành phố này chỉ duy trì được hưng thịnh cho đến đầu thế kỷ IV trước Công nguyên rồi thực sự suy tàn vào thế kỷ II Sau Công nguyên. Theo nhận định của các nhà khảo cổ, thành phố Tân Babylon được phục hưng khi quốc vương Nebuchadnezzar đệ nhị lên nắm quyền. Ở thành chính có khoảng 300 ngọn tháp và 56 bức phù điêu. Hoàng cung được trang hoàng bề thế, nổi nhất là công trình vườn treo Babylon, một hoa viên lơ lửng trên không, đã được UNESCO công nhận là một trong bảy kỳ quan thế giới. Có thể nói, thành phố Babylon tiêu biểu cho trình độ nghệ thuật kiến trúc của nền văn minh Lưỡng Hà.

Babylon - Thành phố của nền văn minh Babylon

Khi quốc vương Nebuchadnezzar đệ nhị chấp chính, chính trị của vương quốc Tân Babylon tương đối ổn định, kinh tế phồn vinh. Để cai quản và bảo vệ vững chắc vương quốc của mình, quốc vương đã cho xây dựng kinh đô Babylon rất quy mô và kiên cố, có giá trị chiến lược cao. Tổng quan thành phố có hình vuông, mỗi cạnh dài 22,3km, tường thành bao quanh cao 8,5m, đều xây bằng gạch và vật liệu xây dựng đặc thù. Tường thành rộng đến mực một chiến xa do bốn chiến mã kéo có thể lăn bánh an toàn trên đó. Toàn thành có tổng 100 cửa ra vào. Từ thực tế đó, thi sĩ nổi danh của Hy Lạp Homer đã từng ca ngợi Babylon là “Thủ đô trăm cửa”. Hai đầu của thành đều được xây dưới lòng sông Euphrates. Bên kia sông Euphrates là khu phố mới, người ta cũng cho xây dựng một cây cầu lớn nối liền đôi bờ sông. Thành Babylon vừa là bức tường phòng thủ vững chắc cho người dân trong thành, vừa là con đê chống lũ. Sông Euphrates cũng có tác dụng giữ thành, bảo vệ cuộc sống nhân dân trước họa xâm lăng.

Một đóng góp nữa của Babylon cổ chính là bộ luật Hammurabi. Bộ luật này được khắc trên một phiến đá cao 2,25m, chu vi đáy 1,9, chu vi đỉnh 1,65m, ngày nay được trưng bày ở Paris. Bộ luật Hammurabi là một trong những bộ luật ra đời sớm nhất trên thế giới, là cơ sở dữ liệu để người ta có thể nghiên cứu về thể chế chính trị và chế độ kinh tế, xã hội của vương quốc Babylon. Bộ luật Hammurabi không chỉ tiêu biểu cho nghệ thuật Babylon cổ, quan trọng hơn nó thể hiện quốc túy truyền đời của vương quốc Babylon. Phiến đá khắc Bộ luật Hammurabi thể hiện rõ nét thành tựu nghệ thuật điêu khắc đương thời, mặt đá nhẵn bóng giống như một tấm gương, trên đó là văn tự hình nêm. Toàn văn bộ luật có 280 điều, gồm những quy tắc cụ thể về luật hình sự, dân sự, thương mại, hôn nhân, thừa kế và cách thức xét xử. Phía bên trên bộ luật là bức phù điêu khắc họa hình tượng thần mặt trời Shamash trao tặng bộ luật cho quốc vương Hammurabi. Thần mặt trời cao lớn, uy nghiêm với bộ râu rặm và dài, đầu đội chiếc mũ hình thù khác lạ, cánh tay để trần, trên mình khoác một chiếc áo dài đang trịnh trọng trao cho quốc vương Hammurabi chiếc chùy, là vật tượng trưng cho quyền lực tối cao. Quốc vương Hammurabi đội vương miện truyền thống, thần thái tươi tỉnh trang nghiêm, hai tay cung kính đón nhận báu vật. Chỗ ngồi của thần mặt trời mang hình chùa tháp của Babylon cổ, ám chỉ đây là vị thần tối cao nhất của nhân loại.

Bách Khoa


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Share on Facebook Tweet it Pin it Share it 0.0 00 Thành phố Babylon cổ nằm ở miền Nam của vùng đồng bằng Lưỡng Hà, giáp với hữu ngạn Sông Euphrates (ở phía nam thủ đô Baghdad của Iraq). Hai triều đại Babylon cổ và Tân Babylon đều định đô tại […]